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  • Animal husbandry Obj 


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*ANIMAL HUSBANDRY Theory *



1a)

i)Not enough drinking water

ii)No feed or decreased feed intake
iii)Low calcium in the feed
iv)Newcastle disease (NCD)
v)Infectious bronchitis (IB)
vi)Poor management
1b)
i)Mouth
ii)Small intestines
iii)Large intestines

1c)
i)For food production e.g milk and meat
ii)They are used as source of power in the farm.
iii)They serve as source of hides.
iv)They serve as source of income to farmers
v)They provides raw materials for industry.
vi)Their horns are used for decoration.



1a) i)

- Bee keeping requires less time, money and infrastructure investments

-Honey and beeswax can be produced from an area of little agricultural value

- The Honey bee does not compete for resources with any other agricultural enterprise.

-Beekeeping can be initiated by individuals or groups

-The market potential for honey and wax is high


1b)

- Use a hybrid or cross bred female.

-Satisfy the nutritional requirements of the sow both in pregnancy and lactation.

-Bring a healthy sow into the farrowing house.

-Achieve good birth weights.

-Ensure each pig receives maximum colostrum at birth.


(2a)*
(Pick three) 
(1)Separators Dairy Equipment.
(2)Homogenizer Dairy Equipment.
(3)Pasteurizers Dairy Equipment.
(4)Tanks Dairy Equipment

2ai)
- Separators Dairy Equipment
- Homogenizer Dairy Equipment
- Pasteurizers Dairy Equipment


*(2b)*
(Steps for Pasteurization of milk)

(1)Pour the raw milk into the stainless steel pot.
(2)Slowly heat the milk to 145 degrees Fahrenheit, stirring occasionally
(3)Hold the temperature at 145 F for exactly 30 minutes.
(4)Remove the pot of milk from the heat and place it in a sink or large bowl filled with ice water. 
(5)Store pasteurized milk in the refrigerator.


*(2ci)*
-Wholesalers
(1)They purchase product in bulk
(2)They provide storage facilities 
(3)They provide good transport  facilities 
(4)They pass information  from retailers to producer and vise versa

*(2cii)*
-Retailer
(1)They make produce readily available  to the customers
(2)They provide jobs for many people 
(3)They pass information  from the consumers to the wholesalers 
(4)They give credits to some consumers


*(2di)*
(Pick three only) 
-Marketing  board
(1)The board provides an organised and ready market for various agricultural commoditie
(2)it helps to stabilise the prices of farm produce
(3)The board sometimes provides capital to farmers 
(4)it advises and encourage  farmers to adopt modern farming techniques
(5)it helps to transport the produce of the farmers 

*(2dii)*

(Pick three only) 
- co-operative society 
(1)They stimulate competition in produce marketing by buying produce in bulk
(2)They have close contact with producers
(3)They reduce the inequality of income distribution by selling to members at reduced rate
(4)They also provide transportation services


3a) Mouth --> egg  hatches --> intestines --> larva 

3aii) 
- it's bites can cause severe irritation 
- heavy louse infestation can lead to restlessness 
- Emaciation or loss of weight 
- the sores may create room for pathogens to attack the animal
- Scratching for the bites results to sores 
- heavy louse infestation can cause death 

3aiii)
- isolate infected animals 
- Avoid overcrowding of animals 
- maintain good sanitation 
- spray the animal host with insecticides 
- Regular dipping of animals in solutions containing ascaricides


3aiv)
- poultry 
- goat 
- dog 
- sheep 
- cattle 
-pig

3bi) 
- cattle 
- Sheep 

3bii) Protozoa (Eimeria spp) 

3biii) 
- blood stained diarrhoea 
- weakness 
- Emaciation 
- Anaemia 

3biv)
- change of litter after some time 
- vaccination should be regular 
- maintain good sanitary measures
- apply coccidiastat to their drinking water


4b) 
Choose any six

extend the growing season of a pasture,
improve the quality of forage

reduce nitrogen fertilizer requirements because of the legume's nitrogen fixation capacities

prove more adaptable for a wider range of conditions

improve flexibility to survive environmental conditions

reduce susceptibility to insect and disease attacks.

improve the palatability
utilize grass to quicken the curing of hay

increase the organic matter content of the soil over time because of grass root systems

reduce weed encroachment
reduce erosion

produce higher yields


4ci) 
Choose any three

(1) village systems
(2) extensive systems
 (3) semi-intensive systems
 (4) very intensive 
 (5) integration

 4a) 
Artificial pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are deliberately planted by man.

4b) 
i) extend the growing season of a pasture
ii) increase the organic matter content of the soil over time because of grass root systems
iii) reduce weed encroachment
iv) reduce erosion
v) produce higher yields
vi) improve the palatability


4b) 
Choose any six

extend the growing season of a pasture,
improve the quality of forage

reduce nitrogen fertilizer requirements because of the legume's nitrogen fixation capacities

prove more adaptable for a wider range of conditions

improve flexibility to survive environmental conditions

reduce susceptibility to insect and disease attacks.

improve the palatability
utilize grass to quicken the curing of hay

increase the organic matter content of the soil over time because of grass root systems

reduce weed encroachment
reduce erosion

produce higher yields


4ci) 
Choose any three

(1) village systems
(2) extensive systems
 (3) semi-intensive systems
 (4) very intensive 
 (5) integration


5a
· Coffee brewing machine
· Coffee bean grinding machine
· Tea dispenser
· Bread slicing machine
· Salamander
· Hot cupboard
· Steamer and hotwater boiler
· Refrigertors
· Work table and cutting board
· General storage space, shelves and cupboards
· Sinks, washing machines and dish washers.
5b) 
Zebu cattle are usually red or grey in colour
They are horned
They have loose skin
They have large ears and have a hump above their shoulders. 
This breed is used for its milk, meat and as draft animals

5c) 
Choose any five 

the regulation of body temperature
growth
digestion
reproduction
metabolism
 lubrication of joints excretion
eyesight

(6a)
ADVANTAGES:
(i) Castration reduces male aggression and thereby makes
males easier to
handle.
(ii) There is a risk of unwanted matings if there are
uncastrated males on the farm, other than those required for
breeding.
(iii) Due apparently to traditional butchers' prejudices,
castrated male meat is marketed higher than that of
uncastrated meats.
(iv) Performance and conversion rates can be itnpr<>ved by
castration.
(v) It helps in preventing production of unwanted or

undesirable offspring


DISADVANTAGES:
(i) The cheaper methods of castration; which the farmer can
do himself,require a degree of skill. With such methods there
is a risk of infection.
(ii) The alternative, of calling in a veterinary surgeon, adds to
costs.
(c) Castration involves somne time.

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